Tuesday, October 15, 2019
Female Acceptance into a Computer Based Society Essay INTRODUCTION Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Advancement on technology had brought different changes into the society. These aims to provide additional comfort and making things work more efficiently. But there are changes that people cannot prevent to happen. These are biological changes such as getting old. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã People respond to the aging process as a negative thing. Misconceptions arises that lead to common negative behavior towards the aging process. Getting old is a natural process. Anti-aging solutions are invented to prevent physical changes that it may cause like gray hair and wrinkles. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Its no secret that our bodies change as we age. Physical as well as psychological changes as effect of aging can be experienced. Ã Some changes are obvious, while others are more subtle. Others, may experience the effects of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, which can gradually diminish their abilities to participate fully in activities. While there are still people age comfortably and remain active, alert and vibrant throughout their lives. Their physiologic age may be quite younger than their chronological age. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Because of the negative connotation on the process of aging, women who are known to be more conscious than men generally find it an issue to accept aging as a natural process of life. OBJECTIVES This study aims to discuss the impact of aging to the female group given in a modern and more advance society. This will provide description on how female cope, adapt and react to the aging process. SCOPE AND DELIMITATION Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The research covers the issue of aging on female point of view. . It also provide an overview on what is aging and the physical and mental changes it bring to a person. This also identify some misconceptions about aging. SIGNIFICANCE Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The study is significant to discuss the impact of aging to women. It identifies the reasons on how the female gender response to the stage of aging. It discusses the common misconceptions regarding aging that can be properly addressed. This study is also significant for future researches related to the topic. RELATED LITERATURE Misconceptions on Aging There are a lot of misconceptions about getting old. It is a negative connotation that aging means getting near to the end of growth. And that old age is a lonely stage of life. It is also a misconception that when one is old, he/she believes that there are only limited to certain activities especially in the physical aspect. One fears getting old because of the fear of loosing independence. Another misconception is that people think that the happy days of their lives were experienced when they are young. According to a recent study shown, these several misconceptions vary from the reality regarding the issue of aging. Ã The research was conducted by VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System and University of Michigan researchers to 540 adults who were between the ages of 21 and 40, or over age 60 . They were asked to rate their level of happiness through answering questions. The results are published in the June issue of the Journal of Happiness Studies, a major research journal in the field of positive psychology. There is a stereotype existing between the old and young in the society. One thinks that the happy days of his/her life happens only when he/she is young. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In another research by Linda M. Woolf, Ph.D., the concept of ageism was examined between younger and older men and women in the present study. It was entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of Age and Gender on Perceptions of Younger and Older AdultsÃ¢â¬ . The study discusses the older adults are perceived more negatively than younger adults. Through gender interaction effect, a significant age by was found. Both younger and older men rated stimulus older adults significantly less positively than stimulus younger adults. However, older women rated stimulus older adults significantly more positively than they rated other stimulus-age groups. Older women were the only subject group that did not exhibit a consistent negative bias against older adults. Conversely, younger women rated stimulus older adults more negatively than any subject group. BiologicalÃ Effects Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The effects of aging are obvious on the body. Our body is made up of cells and tissues that keep on regenerating and replenishing to keep our body sustaining. As we grow old, this process decreases where replacement of old to new cells are slowing causing the signs of aging to appear. Ã Physical changes like poor hearing and declining vision takes place. The strength of muscles lessens due to soft tissues like skin and blood vessels that became less flexible are some general changes that occur in the human body as it ages. Skin starts to become dry and wrinkled. It looses its elasticity and the glands function less so sweating occurs lesser than the usual. Moreover, there is an overall decline in body tone that can be observed. The bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance becomes less efficient. Not all people experience decreased organ function to the same degreeÃ¢â¬âsome individuals are healthier due to good diet and exercise when they are younger. Aging also affects the immune system of a person. Human antibody lessens their act against free radicals. The immune system also changes with age. The antibodies, disease-fighting proteins, protect the body against bacteria, viruses, and other harmful agents in a healthy immune system. A healthy immune system also prevents the growth of abnormal cells, which can become cancerous. With advancing age, the ability of the immune system to carry out these protective functions is diminishedÃ¢â¬âthe rate of antibody production may drop by as much as 80 percent between age 20 and age 85. This less-effective immune system explains why a bout of influenza, which may make a young adult sick for a few days, can be fatal for an elderly person. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã For females, these changes on the body due to the advancement of age have a greater issue. Ã Aging causes changes on the physical aspect of a person and one of the major effects of aging occurs in the female reproductive system. With aging, a womans breasts lose tissue and subcutaneous fat, reducing breast size and fullness. There is also a decrease in the number of mammary ducts. The breasts lose support. Aging breasts commonly flatten and sag, and the nipple may turn in slightly. The areola (the area surrounding the nipple) becomes smaller and may nearly disappear. Loss of hair around the nipple is common. Breast cancer risk increases with age. Women should perform monthly breast self-examinations. However, because breast self-exams do not always pick up early stages of breast cancer, women should also talk to their health care providers about mammograms. It also affects the fertility cycle of a woman. Menopausal stage takes place on about age 45 to age 55 of a female where the ovaries does not longer produce egg cells. This means that she can no longer bear a child. This is also the end of the menstrual cycle since there is no longer the release of sexual hormones that motivates the cycle. Although the average onset of menopause occurs in the early part of the sixth decade there is an observable, real and significant decline in the 10 to 15 years before menstruation ceases. Scientific studies on natural populations (those with high marital rates and no birth control) and on Ã¢â¬Å"infertility populationsÃ¢â¬ all confirm the presence of an age related decline in female fertility independent of all other factors. This effect becomes most prominent after age 35. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Aging cause loss of female fertility. Although menstrual irregularities generally begin to show in the last half of the 5th decade (a time termed perimenopause) there is a marked decrease in fertility in the 10 years preceding this that appears to be independent of male or pelvic factors and despite the occurrence of regular menstrual cycles and ovulation. Similarly a decrease in success rates for IVF is seen in this population as well. The discussion then seems to focus on whether this decrease in fertility is due to ovarian factors, uterine factors or both. In other mammals there does appear to be a host of age related uterine changes that do limit fertility however, initial studies in humans failed to show consistent aging changes. Furthermore it now seems that the endometrium of an ovulatory older woman with appropriate levels of estradiol and progesterone should be able to be appropriately receptive to and supportive of implantation. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The catch here is that as we age, even while still regularly menstruating, there are subtle shifts in hormonal patterns that may make the endometrium less receptive. As an example, luteal phase defect is far more common at the edges of reproductive life (very young, very old, newly delivered) but progesterone supplementation, which in theory should overcome the defect, does not appear to have made a significant difference in pregnancy rates for older women. More compelling support for the idea that the problem is primarily ovarian in nature comes from the fact that pregnancy rates for younger women and older women undergoing IVF with donor eggs are quite comparable. There are however, still some questions about uterine receptivity and study is ongoing in attempts to isolate out the effect of the Ã¢â¬Å"older uterusÃ¢â¬ from the effect of aging eggs of poor quality. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The bottom line for now seems to be that although everyone agrees that egg quality and ovarian reserve definitely decline with age and are perhaps the primary factors causing an age related decrease in female fertility, there may be uterine factors in play as well. Further study to elucidate the mechanisms at work and, hopefully, to devise new treatment options are indicated. A number of other studies investigates the effects of aging. Scientists have found, for example, a possible explanation for why women have longer average life spans than men. The difference seems to be biologically determined, and male and female sex hormones are probably responsible. The blood levels of female sex hormones drop sharply during menopause. At that time, the incidence of heart disease and high blood pressure in women increases to match the incidence in men, suggesting that the presence of female sex hormones offers some protection against heart disease. Aging Population Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In developed nations, life expectancy has increased more in the 20th century than it has in all of recorded history. A person born in the United States in 1995 can expect to live more than 35 years longer than a person born in 1900. Today more than 34 million Americans are 65 or older, accounting for about 13 percent of the population. By the year 2030, their numbers will more than double: One in every five Americans will be over age 65. A person who lives 100 years or moreÃ¢â¬âa centenarianÃ¢â¬âwas once a rarity, but today about 60,000 Americans are 100 years or older. By the year 2060, there may be as many as 2.5 million centenarians in the United States. The number of supercentenariansÃ¢â¬âpeople 105 years of age and olderÃ¢â¬âwill probably be as commonplace in the next century as centenarians are fast becoming now. How to Counteract with Aging Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Knowing what to expect and taking steps to counterbalance the effects of aging can help you maintain a young spirit and an independent life. A healthy diet, regular exercise program and positive attitude can help delay the onset and slow the progression of many age-related changes. Many of the changes in our musculoskeletal system result more from disuse than from simple aging. Fewer than 10 percent of Americans participate in regular exercise, and the most sedentary group is over age 50. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Stretching is an excellent way to help maintain joint flexibility. Weight training can increase muscle mass and strength, enabling people to continue their daily routine activities without maximal exertion. Even moderate amounts of physical activity can reduce your risk of developing high blood pressure, heart disease and some forms of cancer. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Much recent research has been conducted on the effects of exercise on aging. In all of the studies described above, exercise had positive effects on aging. It has been found to increase reaction time, assist in predicting good aging, and improve psychological well-being. Factors such as health, social support, efficacy, and motivation are indicators of the maintenance of exercise. One should acknowledge the factors influencing exercise, recognize the numerous benefits of exercise, and take action at any age in order to live a more healthy and happy life now and in old age. Long-term regular exercises may slow the loss of muscle mass and prevent age-associated increases in body fat. Exercise also helps maintain the bodys response time, as well as its ability to deliver and use oxygen efficiently. Just 30 minutes of moderate activity, incorporated into your daily routine, can provide health benefits. An exercise program doesnt have to be strenuous to be effective. Walking, square dancing, swimming and bicycling are all recommended activities for maintaining fitness into old age. The 30 minutes of moderate activity can be broken up into shorter periods; you might spend 15 minutes working in the garden in the morning and 15 minutes walking in the afternoon. It all adds up. But if youve never attempted an exercise program before, be sure to see your doctor before starting one now. Psychological Aging Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Behavioral medicine research over the past several years has identified a umber of psychosocial characteristics that affect the development and course of a wide range of life-threatening illnesses. Included among these psychosocial risk factors are hostility, depression, social isolation, high job strain, and low socioeconomic status. The specific mechanisms whereby these factors influence the pathoÃ genesis and prognosis of major causes of death such as coronary heart disease (CHD) and cancer have not been identified yet, but considerable research points to accompanying health behaviors (smoking, dietary habits, and alcoÃ hol consumption) and biological characteristics (altered functions of the symÃ pathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems [SNS, PNS], of the hypothalÃ amic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis, and of the immune system) as likely mediators. Finally, research evaluating interventions targeting psychosocial risk factors in groups of patients with CHD and cancer offer considerable promise that secondary prevention will be shown to have an important place in the treatment and rehabilitation of major chronic diseases . Anti-aging can be a difficult topic to address. A war is currently being fought over the meaning of anti-aging (as research, medicine, brand, or simply adjective) and thus even mentioning the term is likely to prejudice many readers. Defining Anti-Aging Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Like it or not, anti-aging now has a number of quite different common meanings and connotations. Each is championed by a particular group or loose coalition of interests, but advocates for these groups have a way of diving into the fray without defining their terms. This makes reading about anti-aging techniques, technologies, medicine, products, and debates very confusing for the newcomer. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã For the scientific community, anti-aging research refers exclusively to slowing, preventing, or reversing the aging process. There is, as of 2007, no medical technology that allows this to be done although the jury is still out on calorie restriction in humans. Nor is there any currently available method (short of waiting for people to die) to accurately measure the effects of an alleged anti-aging therapy. In the medical and more reputable business community, anti-aging medicine means early detection, prevention, and reversal of age-related diseases. This is quite different from tackling the aging process itself, and a wide array of strategies and therapies are currently available. Calorie restriction, for example, is a demonstrated way to lower risk for a wide range of age-related degenerative conditions. The wider business community including a great many fraudulent and frivolous ventures views anti-aging as a valuable brand and a demonstrated way to increase sales. At the worse end of the scale, this leads to snake oil salesmen, anti-aging creams that may or may not make your skin look younger, and infomercials that tout the anti-aging benefits of exercise machines. Broadly, and very charitably, we can look at these varied definitions of anti-aging as meaning to look and feel younger in some way which has no bearing on how long you live or how healthy you actually are. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The confusion of most interest is between the first two definitions. Many interventions lengthen life span for individuals by preventing or curing specific age-related diseases that would otherwise prove fatal. For example, ask yourself whether preventing heart disease or diabetes is anti-aging medicine. This would have no effect on the aging process, but it would help many people to live longer, healthier lives. Is this anti-aging research? Scientists say no, some medical and business groups say yes. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Aging is such a bad word in our society. We dont want to see old people, much less sit next to them. Even old people dont like to be around other old people.But maybe the reason that many seniors cant embrace their golden years is that they have never had it modeled for them. People today just live longer. The fastest growing segment in todays society is those 85 and older. Its a whole new ballgame for seniors today. A lot are unsure what to do or whats expected of them. In some ways, were pioneers showing younger folk what to do and what they can do when they are this age. Indeed, the work of a person growing old is that of becoming an elder, discovering spiritual treasures and passing them along to others. Despite physical limitations, there are many positives about aging, including more time to be spent in meditation and prayer, working on a closer connection to God and selves. That meditative work can encourage elders to review their lives, see how they made a difference as well as bringing up old wounds and pains. Its here that seniors need to work on forgiving others, themselves and God as they let go of past hurts, grudges and pains. AGING ON FEMALEÃ¢â¬â¢S PERSPECTIVE Response to Physical Changes It is a much issue for women when they feel they get old considering females to be a more conscious gender when it comes to the physical aspect. After discussing the physical changes that it can bring, without proper caring, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s body can be a total wreck. Another issue that aging brought is that it lessen oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self esteem. Women are conscious of their age. Youth implies beauty. Something that one tries to preserve while she is still has the youthfulness. That is why anti aging creams, pills etc. are in demand to most women. For example, there is a preference of choosing a younger female. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As women age their concerns about health growÃ¢â¬âand rightfully so given that women are at greater risks for some health conditions. For example, according to the Illinois Department on Aging, heart disease is the No. 1 leading cause of death among older women. Women are twice as likely as men to die within the first year of having a heart attack. The second leading cause of death for women is cancerÃ¢â¬âspecifically lung and breast cancerÃ¢â¬âand the third leading cause of death is stroke. Women who have hypertension or diabetes are at greater risk for heart disease and strokes. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Like all women, lesbians are at risk for health problems associated with aging. Some evidence suggests that they may even be at greater risk for some age-related health problems. For example, because lesbians as a group are less likely to have been pregnant, more likely to drink alcohol and smokeÃ¢â¬âand more likely to be overweightÃ¢â¬âtheir risk of breast cancer may be greater than the risk among women in the general population. However, we need much more research before we can say much of anything for sure about lesbiansÃ¢â¬â¢ risks for breast cancer or the other leading causes of death. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women (CHLEW) study we are collecting information about these and many other health concerns of lesbians. We are happy to report that, in general, the 450 lesbians in our study are overall very healthyÃ¢â¬âin fact, when we first interviewed them in 2000-2001, 74% of them rated their health as good or excellent; only 7% said that their health was poor. Very few women in the study reported being diagnosed with breast cancer , heart disease, or diabetes. However, 17% said that they have high blood pressure (hypertension). One of the reasons for these low rates of problems is that the women are relatively youngÃ¢â¬âthe average age of the women in the study is 39 years (only about a quarter of them are over 45 years old). As they get older, lesbians, like other women, face higher risk for these serious health problems. Because we have not yet discovered the cure for aging it is important that we take care of ourselves in order to reduce these risks and improve our overall quality of life. Among the most important ways that we can take care of ourselves include getting regular exercise, not smoking, and using sodium (salt) and alcohol in moderation. Some misconceptions of women and the truth Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The older I get, the worse my body will feel. The increasing stiffness and aches pains that often come with age are not a result of age, but are due to lack of movement. Although there are some changes in the tissues in the process of aging, one can continue to remain remarkably flexible and free of pain through something as simple as regular stretching. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Its too late to start taking care of myself it wont do any good at this age. A healthy lifestyle has been found to be one of the most important factors in how people age. Improvements in lifestyle (with the 3 key areas being good food, exercise and regular relaxation and rest) will bring improvements at any age. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Im getting too old to learn new things Research shows that older people can, and do, learn new things. Attitude plays an important role. People who believe they can learn new things do. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Sex is only for the young. People can, and do, continue to enjoy sex well into their senior years. People are sexual beings throughout the life cycle, but sexuality is experienced differently at different ages. Changes in hormones affects the experience of sex, and one may need to find different ways to be intimate. Relaxation is key here so that we dont panic when things dont happen the way they used to. Aging does not imply that they are too old for sex but simply they need to give themselves some breathing room to become familiar with our changing physiologies. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The older I get, the less attractive I become. There is nothing more attractive than someone who has aged well. There is a special radiance in a elderly person who is at peace with themselves and life. Attractiveness has absolutely nothing to do with age. Its never too late to change the two most important ingredients to graceful aging attitude and lifestyle. Ã At the risk of sounding like a broken record to those of you whove read my previous articles there are two very simple but essential lifestyle ingredients for successful aging -relaxation and stretching. Ã Ã References: http://www.hope.edu/academic/psychology/335/webrep2/ageexercise.htm http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/lifestyle/2006-06/17/content_619419.htm http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/lifestyle/2006-06/17/content_619419.htm http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/ageismwoolf.html http://www.seniorwomen.com/articles/articlesElginOld.html http://www.riversidehealth.com/articles/aging.htm http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/fact/thr_report.cfm?Thread_ID=224topcategory=Wellness http://infertility.about.com/cs/femalefactors/a/femaleage.htm
Monday, October 14, 2019
Holistic approach of yoga for health In this modern era, we have all the material comforts due to advancements in technology; this rapid progress and technological development has changed the life style of the people, which in turn seems to pose many challenges. Today, ones life style has changed in all aspects, viz physical, mental social. Mankind suffered from infectious contagious diseases before 19th century. Thanks to all advances in modern medicine, this has helped us to get these infectious contagious diseases under control. These are now replaced by psychosomatic ailments which are assuming epidemic proportions. Scientists are recognizing that the modern lifestyle has a major contribution for this. The modern medical science is recognizing its limitations in treating these psychosomatic ailments as evidenced by low success rates in the treatment, side effects of the medicine continuing increase in the incidence of these life style problems. So, people are looking for some alternate remedy for their problems for effective management of their problems. In the past few years there is tremendous scope for the Complimentary Alternative Medicines (CAM). The aim of this report is to provide information about the positive benefits of an alternate system. Now is the time to review our approach in treating psychosomatic problems. A change in attitude and lifestyle is necessary to help us to cope with the problems and diseases. On the positive side, man has the potential to search for pragmatic and simple solutions. By finding realistic alternatives and by creating positive solutions, the problems can be resolved, and the world brought out of its present crisis. Recent researches have shown that mind, the psyche plays a prime role in most of the psychosomatic diseases. The biomedical approach of modern medicine has looked at only (Physical) superficial aspect of ones existence, which in turn seems to have limited its treatment success. Vedas the treasure house of ancient Indian science, which includes Yoga Ayurveda, may play an important role in treating these diseases with their holistic/ integrated approach. These two systems play a prime role in the expanded version of CAM. This science is more than 5000 years old. These are the major tools to achieve Chaturtha purusharthas (Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksha) which is a prime goal of all human being. In the classics they very beautifully explains that, we need long healthy life span to achieve chaturvidha purusharthas, ayurveda helps to achieve long healthy life span yoga is to achieve a higher goal like Moksha(Liberation). As Yoga is known to calm down the mind, so in the modern era it h as become an important tool to treat these psychosomatic diseases. Even though it is known for higher goal like Moksha, its need of the hour to successful conquering the challenges of these psychosomatic diseases. Through yoga, one can understand this root cause and take measures to establish peace and harmony. The approaches are integrated at all levels Annamaya koÃâ¦Ã¢â¬ ºa, Pranamaya koÃâ¦Ã¢â¬ ºa, Manomaya koÃâ¦Ã¢â¬ ºa, VijÃ ±ÃâÃ namaya KoÃâ¦Ã¢â¬ ºa and Ãânandamaya koÃâ¦Ã¢â¬ ºa promoting physical, mental, social and spiritual health. Concept of health and Yoga Health is a state of well-being at physical, mental, social and spiritual levels and not merely an absence of illness or infirmity. This is the definition of Health as defined by World Health Organization (WHO). Prior to this latest definition the World Health Organization adopted only three components e.g. Physical, Mental and Social. The spiritual role played in making a healthy body was very newly recognized by this International Authority only after knowing the efficacy of yoga as a science in totality, so to say, an integrated and holistic science. Sri Aurobindo emphasizes, health is an all-round personality development; at the physical, mental, intellectual, emotional and spiritual levels. It is a process by which the limitations and imperfections can be washed away resulting in a superhuman race. The new facilities of deeper perceptions of the world beyond the five senses emerge in this phase of superman existence. Further growth leads to man to unfold ever deeper layers of consciousness and widen the spectrum of his knowledge to move towards divinity or perfection. Yoga is a systematic conscious process for accelerating the growth of human being from his animal level and ultimately to divinity. It is a systematic methodology for all-round personality development on the physical, mental, intellectual, emotional and spiritual components of man. Thus, Yoga in its general methodology for the growth of man to divine heights includes techniques useful for therapeutic applications in making man healthier. Yoga way of life is charac terized by peace and tranquility, harmony and health, love and happiness, precision and efficiency. The aim of this report is to provide information about the positive benefits of an alternate system. Unlike conventional medicine where in the application of drugs treat only the surface level of the ailments and there are also dangerous side effects, which sometimes cause more problems the traditional yoga philosophy regards the human being as an indivisible entity. So it adopts a holistic approach. The root cause of the modern psychosomatic ailments is the stress. Through yoga, one can understand this root cause and take measures to establish peace and harmony. The approaches are integrated at all levels Ã Ã ¤Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã Ã ¤Ã ¨Ã Ã ¥Ã Ã Ã ¤Ã ¨Ã Ã ¤Ã ®Ã Ã ¤Ã ¯ Ã Ã ¤Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã ¥Ã¢â¬ ¹Ã Ã ¤Ã ¶ (annamaya koÃâ¦Ã¢â¬ ºa ), Ã Ã ¤Ã ªÃ Ã ¥Ã Ã Ã ¤Ã °Ã Ã ¤Ã ¾Ã Ã ¤Ã £Ã Ã ¤Ã ®Ã Ã ¤Ã ¯ Ã Ã ¤Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã ¥Ã¢â¬ ¹Ã Ã ¤Ã ¶ (prÃâÃ Ã ¡Ã ¹Ã¢â¬ ¡amaya koÃâ¦Ã¢â¬ ºa), Ã Ã ¤Ã ®Ã Ã ¤Ã ¨Ã Ã ¥Ã¢â¬ ¹Ã Ã ¤Ã ®Ã Ã ¤Ã ¯ Ã Ã ¤Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã ¥Ã¢â¬ ¹Ã Ã ¤Ã ¶ (manomaya koÃâ¦Ã¢â¬ ºa ), Ã Ã ¤Ã µÃ Ã ¤Ã ¿Ã Ã ¤Ã âÃ Ã ¥Ã Ã Ã ¤Ã ¾Ã Ã ¤Ã ¾Ã Ã ¤Ã ¨Ã Ã ¤Ã ®Ã Ã ¤Ã ¯ Ã Ã ¤Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã ¥Ã¢â¬ ¹Ã Ã ¤Ã ¶ (vijÃ ±ÃâÃ namaya koÃâ¦Ã¢â¬ ºa) and Ã Ã ¤Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã ¤Ã ¨Ã Ã ¤Ã ¨Ã Ã ¥Ã Ã Ã ¤Ã ¦Ã Ã ¤Ã ®Ã Ã ¤Ã ¯ Ã Ã ¤Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã ¥Ã¢â¬ ¹Ã Ã ¤Ã ¶(ÃâÃ nandamaya koÃâ¦Ã¢â¬ ºa) promoting physical, mental, social and spiritual health. Recent research proved the efficacy of yoga in the treatment of psychosomatic diseases, but as it is comparatively new to treat these diseases, experts believe more research needs to be under taken. Integrated Approach of Yoga Therapy (I.A.Y.T) In ancient science yoga is known for higher goals like Moksha (Liberation). But as we know the need of the hour is to use Yoga for treating the psychosomatic ailments. From the last few decades yoga gained popularity as one of the Complimentary Alternative Medicines (CAM) in all parts of the world. Different people are using it in different ways. It has also become a part of education with its multifold advantages. Yoga is used for developing memory, intelligence and creativity. The modern medical system has replaced almost all the traditions system of medicine in different parts of the globe because of its relational basis. It has proved itself most effective in saving man from the fatal hands of contagious and infectious diseases. But many psychosomatic ailments and psychiatric problems pose a great disturbance to the modern medical system. It is here that yoga is making a vital contribution to the modern medical system. Patanjali defines YOGA in his second patanjalis aphorism as; Yogah Citta Vriti Nirodhah Yoga is a continuous process of gaining control over the mind which helps us to reach over original state. Yoga helps us to remain calm and silent under a given situation and to think and act accordingly. As per yoga Vasistha, Yoga is a skilful trick to calm down the mind on the tend it is portrayed as Manah Prasamanopayah Yoga Ityabhidhiyate. According to Bhagwad Gita, it is, yogah karmasu kausalam which says yoga is dexterity in action. According to Sri Aurobindo, health is an all-round personality development; at the physical, mental, intellectual, emotional and spiritual levels. It is a process by which the limitation and imperfections can be washed away resulting in a super human race. Further growth leads man to unfold even deeper layers of consciousness and widen the spectrum of his knowledge to more towards divinity or perfection. In this march towards perfection, Yoga is a systematic conscious process for accelerating the growth of a human being from his animal level and ultimately to divinity. It is a systematic methodology for and all round personality development physical, mental, intellectual, emotional and spiritual components of man. Thus, yoga in its general methodology for the growth of man to divine heights includes technique useful for therapeutic applications in making man healthier. Yoga not only provides techniques for the growth of man from his animal level to heights of perfection it carves out a way of life for him. Yoga way of life in characterized by peace and tranquility, harmony and health, love and happiness, precision and efficiency. Pancha kosa: Pancha Kosa has been taken from Taittireya Upanisad. Human existence is made possible because of balance between five layers or Kosas. These Kosas are called Pancha Kosa, the 5 livered existence of human being. The fine Kosas are: i) Annamaya Kosa: This is the physical layer, over physical body is made of anna or matter. This matter based aspect of our physical personality is Annamaya Kosa. Annamaya Kosa consists of five elements are Panchabhutas namely earth, water, fire, wind and space. Thus, Annamaya Kosa is the physical frame which is the grossest of the five Kosas. ii) Pranamaya Kosa: It is prana the vital force which is the basic fabric of this universe both inside and outside our body. A uniform harmonious flow of prana to each and every all of the Annamya Kosa keeps them alive and healthy. Prana flows through nadis which is called Pancha Prana namely Apana, Prana, Udana, Samana and Vyana. iii) Manomaya Kosas: This is the mental layer where thoughts give rise to strong emotion. It is this emotion that is the root cause of all human joy and distress. When this emotion grows stronger, they govern against our right actions. This leads to imbalances called Adhi or stress. Long standing Adhis get pushed into pranamaya and annamaya Kosa causing Vyadhis. iv) Vijanamaya Kosa: This is the discriminating faculty. It works on conscience which continuously guides the manamoya kosa to get mastery over the basic instincts. It is this component of the mind that was developed in human race that greatly differentiates man from animals. v) Anandamaya Kosa: This is the bliss layer of our existence. This is the most suitable aspect of our existence which is derived of any form of emotions. Bliss is embodied in Anandamaya Kosa, the highest stage of emotion in the manifested existence. It is the subtest among the five layers of existence. The science of illnesses: In Anandamaya Kosa a man is healthiest with perfect harmony and balance of all his faculties. At Vijnanamaya Kosa the movements are channelized in the right direction. The imbalances start only in the Manomaya Kosa. This imbalance amplifies themselves resulting in mental illness called Adhi. At this stage there are no symptoms at the physical level. The mental diseases percolate to the physical from because of the growth of wrong actions. These breed physical diseases are called Vyadhi which is divided into Adhija Vyadhi and Anadhija Vyadhi. The Adhija Vyadhi is two fold- samanya and sara. The former includes diseases incidental to the body. These may be termed as psychosomatic ailments. But the latter is responsible for rebirth to which all men are subjected. The second category of ailments is Anadija Vyadhi those which are not originated by mind. These would probably include the infectious and contagious disease. The disturbances in the Manomaya Kosa percolate into the physical layer through the Pranamaya Kosa. Hence in the treatment of these psychosomatic ailments it becomes mandatory to work at all the levels of pancha kosa. The integrated approach thus, consists is not only dealing with physical sheath, it also includes using technique to operate in different sheaths of our existence. A brief description is given below. i) Annamaya Kosa: a healthy yogic diet, kriyas, loosing exercises and yogasanas are used to operate at the annamaya kosa level and to remove the physical symptoms of the ailments and also plays an important role in building the stamina. ii) Pranamaya Kosa: Prana is the basic life principle. Pranamaya is a process for gaining control over prana. Through the practices of proper breathing, Kriyas pranayamas, we start operating on pranamaya Kosa. Thus, ailments are handled at this pranamaya Kosa level. iii) Manomaya Kosa: A direct operation on this level is made possible by the last three limbs of Astanga Yoga of Patanjali-Dharma, Dhyana and Samadhi. A devotional session containing of prayers, chants, Bhajans, Dhuns, Stotras etc. help to build a congenial atmosphere to evoke, recognize, attenuate and dissipate the emotion. Therefore, the control over the manomaya kosa means control over the adhis and vyadhis. iv) Vijnanamaya Kosa: we can come over all the miseries and obsessions by basic perception and right knowledge. Listening lectures, discussing and counseling of yoga philosophy; positives, and constructive topics offers the right attitude. v) Anadamaya Kosa: The body of happiness can only be brought by working with a background of blissfulness the techniques used come under the heading of Karma Yoga the secret of action. Thus the IAYT helps us for the total holistic health and humanity to build a divine society. CHAPTER 8: DIABETES MELLITUS Definition: Diabetes mellitus (DM) refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. Several distinct types of DM exist and are caused by a complex interaction of genetics and environmental factors. Depending on the etiology of the DM, factors contributing to hyperglycemia include reduced insulin secretion, decreased glucose utilization, and increased glucose production. The metabolic dysregulation associated with DM causes secondary pathophysiologic changes in multiple organ systems that impose a tremendous burden on the individual with diabetes and on the health care system. It is most common of the endocrine disorders. Being chronic it affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, fat, water and electrolytes. The result is by effecting the eye, kidney and nervous system. Classification: Diabetes mellitus is classified into 2 major types. Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or Juvenile Onset Diabetes (JOD) Non-Insuline Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. (NIDDM) 1. Insuline Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) This is an Immune Mediated Diabetes which is caused by a phenomenon called Auto Immune Mechanism. Here, the immune system goes wrong and produce antibodies. When autoimmune mechanisms are directed against the insulin producing B-cells of the pancreas (diabetes does not set in until 80% of B-cells are destroyed).saaaq Then, the pancreas stops producing insulin or producing insufficient qualities this prevents glucose from entering the body cells which results high level of food in the form of glucose in the blood stream, this type of diabetes must inject themselves daily with insulin. Juvenile Onset Diabetes: This subtype commonly occurs in childhood and adolescence but can occur in any age both sexes can be affected. Idiopathic Diabetes is also type of IDDM. Here dietary plays an important part. There is no evidence of B-cell destruction. Episodes of rise in blood glucose and ketone accumulation may occur periodically. The patients may require insulin treatment for survival. 2. Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus / Adult Onset Diabetes (AOD) In this type an inappropriate secretion of insulin at the wrong time or the body issue becomes less responsive to the insulin. In this form of diabetes insulin release appear to occur too late in the cycle so the blood sugar level rises to a high level before insulin is secreted and when it is secreted then that there is a no enough to cope with the high blood sugar level. It is called Non-Insulin Dependent DM because it can usually be controlled without the use of insulin injection. This type was also referred as Adult Onset Diabetes since it occurs most often in adults, 40 years of age and older. Other types of Diabetes. a) Potential diabÃ ¨tes: Patients are having increase liability to develop diabetes due to genetic reason on child of diabetes parents. b) Latent Diabetes: Patients who have shown abnormal results under comparing a burden on the pancreatic all during pregnancy or infection. Causes of Diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes occurs due to heredity, and autoimmunity. Type 2 Diabetes occurs due to heredity, overweight, sedentary life style and degenative Heredity: The heredity characteristics are: If a parent has type-1 diabetes i.e. IDDM, a child has 2-5% change of developing DM. If a child has Type-1 DM, the changes of a brother or a sister developing DM is of the order of 5-10%. If a person with one parent with type-II Diabetes has a chance of 25% of developing type-II diabetes during adult hood. If both the parents have diabetes it increase to 50% If a person has type-II diabetes the chances of a brother or a sister with develop in the order of 20-40% Overweight: 50-80% of the people with type-II diabetes are overweight at the time of diagnosis. Auto immunity: In this condition, the bodys immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys of its own cells eg. Beta cells of the islets of langerhans in Type-1 diabetes. Age: When there are two children of parents with diabetes and one becomes overweight during adulthood and the other does not one will be more likely to develop type II Diabetes Signs and Symptoms: Diabetes mellitus usually occurs with following sign and symptoms. Dryness of the mouth and excessive thirst Frequent urination Weight loss Weakness and inability to cope with the daily routine Redness and Irritation of genitalia Blurred vision Fatigue Painful limbs Pain in fingers and toes Cramps or numbers of feet may be present Diagnosis: Depends on history, examination supported by following investigations Blood sugar test Fasting blood sugar (FBS), Normal range 50- 100mg% or (5-6-5mmol/l) Post prandial blood sugar (PPBS), Normal range 130-160mg% or (6-8 mmol/l) Urine Test Glucose appears in urine when the blood glucose level exceeds about 180mg%. This limit is called Renal Kidney threshold for glucose. Methods of testing Sugar/Glucose. Benedicts test Paper strip test. Glucose Tolerance Test: Medical Management: Diabetes mellitus cannot be cured completely but can be kept under control with the help of dietary changes, drugs or insulin. Main object of Management: To provide quality the life of diabetic patients To relieve the symptoms of diabetes. To establish good sugar control To stop diabetes spreading for their complication. Mode of the Diabetic Management Diet Exercise Medicine Acupuncture/Acupressure Yoga Magnet therapy Principle of Diet-Planning: A DM patients diet should be able to Supply sufficient amount of energy giving nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins and fats. -Supply sufficient amounts of vitamins and minerals. To maintain ideal body weight. To help in avoiding complications of DM. Yogic Management: According to yoga, the causes of diabetes are in the mind i.e. stress any percolate down to PrÃ ¤namaya kosha and Annamaya Kosha. Hence it has got to be tackled at all the five koshas. Annamaya Kosa: Diet control is important; Sithilikarna Vyayama should be practiced to stimulate internal organs. Asanas brings flexibility suppleness to muscular system, help in removing tamasic behaviour. It also activates the vital internal organs Kriyas, Uddiyanabandha and Agnisara help increasing the blood flow to the region resulting in removing impurities and stimulating the pancreas Pranamaya kosa: Pranayama is gaining mastery over prana the basic life giving force. It regulates the breath and balances prana. The following practices are very helpful. Sectional breathing, Nadi Suddhi and Brahmari etc. Manomaya Kosa: The guided meditative practices described here under are easy to follow and highly beneficial in calming down and slowing down the mind. OM Mediation DRT MSRT QRT Cyclic Mediation Devotional Session Vijnanamaya Kosa: At the intellectual level, a national correction is imparted as to What is real happiness? i.e. Happy Analysis Ananda Mimamsa an effort to redeem the participants of all miseries and obsessions and attachments. This is done through counseling, satsangs, lectures, maitrimilian etc. Anandamaya Kosa: Everybody experienced that Ananda the blissful state beyond the time and space at least for a short time. May be by accident and may not be aware how to get that blissful state again and be in it for longer time if not forever participants are encouraged to be in touch with that blissful state through Karma Yoga and Happy Assembly. Case History: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Name : Mr. C. R. Age Sex : 73, Female Occupation : Agriculture Marital status : Married Education : PUC Date of Admission : Date of Discharge : Diagnosis : Diabetes Mellitus Chief Complaints: K/C/O- Diabetes and Hypertension since 15 years Tingling numbness in feet Delay in wound healing BPH and Constipation since 4 years Kidney stones since 2 years History of Present Illness: Patent was apparently normal before 15 years then he got to know that he is diabetic when his blood was checked. Later he was started with the medications. Gradually he developed the Prostate hypertrophy and constipation. Two years back he developed kidney stones. Personal History: Appetite : Normal Sleep : Disturbed Bowls : Constipated Bladder : Frequent urination Addictions : No Menstrual/ OBG History: Not specific Past History: Had the head injury in road traffic accident 4 year ago He had the clot in the brain and operated in 2007 Family History: Father and son having high BP Treatment / Medication History: Tab. Riotrill 5 Mg 0-0-1 Tab. Triptomen 0-0-1 Tab. Stamlo Beta 500 Mg 0-0-1 Tab. Glymet GP2 1-0-1 Tab. Plagerine -A 0-1-1 Tab. Storvas 10 Mg 0-0-1 Tab. Himplasia 1-0-1 Tab. Y- Lax Constipation Social / Stress history: Wife expired 2 years ago, she was also diabetic Son is not co-operating Examination General Physical Examination: Built: moderate Pallor: + Clubbing: NAD Edema: Mild pitting edema in both legs Vital Signs: PR: 74/ min RR: 24/ min BP: 130/80 mm of Hg Temp: Normal Height: 56 Weight: 77 Kg Systemic Examination: CVS: NAD Investigations: FBS : 90 mg/dl 1 week ago (Venous blood) PPBS : 130 mg/ dl Diagnosis: Diabetes mellitus with neuropathy Aim of Present Therapy: Is to reduce the frequency of urination and to improve the quality of sleep. To reduce the diabetic complications, bring down the medications. To improve the overall quality of life. Management Progress: The participant attended all the classes and found all of them to be enjoyable and enlighten. Out of all the class he liked CM, initially he found DM special technique a little too exhausting. After some time he was toned down to accommodate his physical condition. He enjoyed the lecture by Dr. Raghuramji found them relevant to his life. Counseling Strategies: The participant was completely understood the holistic approach of the IAYT. We encouraged him to abstain completely abstain from the sweets during his stay so that he may see clearly that blood sugar level is drooping by time of his discharge. We encouraged him to participate actively during special technique sessions and to practice his own diligently so that the effect of each exercise is felt more clearly The participant responded positively when he started to noticing the improvement, he was more even more encouraged. We taught him the sweet Meditation and its theory. The participant loved many of the lectures as they touched on the realities of day to day life. Gentle words of encouragement and praise worked very well with this participant. Results: General Parameters: S. NO PARTICULARS BY AY % CHANGE 1 SYS BP (mm of Hg) 130 118 2 DIA BP (mm of Hg) 80 76 3 PULSE (cycles per min) 74 72 4 RR (cycles per min) 24 20 5 BHT(Sec) 8 11 6 WT(Kg) 77 76.1 Clinical Parameters: S. NO PARTICULARS BY AY % CHANGE 1 MEDICATION SCORE (MS) 8 8 2 SYMPTOM SCORE (SS) 4 1 Psychological Parameters: S. NO PARTICULARS BY AY % CHANGE 1 SATVA 21 21 2 RAJAS 2 2 3 TAMAS 2 2 Specific Parameters: S. NO PARTICULARS BY AY % CHANGE 1 FBS(mg/dl) 90 90 2 PPBS(mg/dl) 130 114 CHAPTER 7: BACK PAIN Definition Any pain which occurs in the region between the neck and pelvic at any point on the Spinal column, is termed as Back Pain. Back pain is not disease and therefore, it has no cure. But it can be controlled. Causes: Back pain is a symptom. Common causes of back pain involve disease or injury to the muscles, bones, and/or nerves of the spine. Pain arising from abnormalities of organs within the abdomen, pelvis, or chest may also be felt in the back. This is called referred pain. Many intra-abdominal disorders, such as appendicitis, aneurysms, kidney diseases, bladder infections, pelvic infections, and ovarian disorders, among others, can cause pain referred to the back. Normal pregnancy can cause back pain in many ways, including stretching ligaments within the pelvis, irritating nerves, and straining the low back. Your doctor will have this in mind when evaluating your pain. The most common causes of lower back pain are sprains and strains. Other conditions that can cause back pain include: disc injury, spinal stenosis, and osteoarthritis of the spine, spondylolisthesis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoporosis and fractures of the lumbar spine, pregnancy, fibromyalgia. Classification: Several classifications are available. Feinstein described 3 major types of clinimetric indexes that are relevant to classification systems used for patients with LBP. These are the status index, the prognostic index, and the clinical guideline index. Followings are some conditions with a symptom of back pain Sciatica: A severe shooting pain that radiates from the lower back along the back of the thigh down to the outer inner side of the foot. Radiculopathy: Pain in the area where the particular nerve has been distributed, because of nerve trap or compression, patient feels pain in that area. Lumbar spondylosis: Limited movements of the waist region. Stiffening of the spine Cervical spondylosis Low back pain, neck pain, headache Arm pain and neck movements are reduced Tender spot in the trapezium muscles Arms become weak and lose reflexes. Coccydynia: Pain in the coccyx region Ankylosing spondylitis: Chronic stiffness in the hips and entire spine Mild to moderate nagging pain in the lumbar region or hips Lumbago: Acute pain to the buttocks or thighs Signs and Symptoms: Depends on type of Backpain Diagnostic Criteria: Asymmetrical straight leg raising Asymmetrical movements of lumbar spine Test for pain during movements Test for neurology defect Test for back pain on axial loading Test for sensory loss Imaging techniques i.e. CT and MRI Medical management: Depends on type of backpain. Analgesics anti-inflammatory. Surgery Yogic management: Prevention is better than cure. Preventive measures include: Awareness and correction of posture while standing, sitting and lying down Regular exercises Stress management Yogic techniques involving slow body movements followed by practices of deep relaxation are useful in maintaining the strength and flexibility of the spine. Regular practice of a basic set of yoga practices of 45 to 60 min including sÃ ¼rya NamaskÃ ¤r, loosening practices, 8-10 ÃâÃ sana followed by deep relaxation, PrÃâÃ nÃâÃ nyÃâÃ ma and Meditation. The different Yogic practices affects on Pancha kosha levels: Annamaya kosha: Asana, Physical movements, kriyas, and Yogasanas are used to operate at the Annamaya kosa level and to remove the physical symptoms of the ailments. KriyÃâÃ s: It is a yogic process to cleanse the inner organs of the body and they bring the following effects: Activating and revitalizing the organs, toning up their functions Desensitization Development of the deep internal awareness Physical exercise and movement: Very simple physical movements to mobilize and activates, particularly, affected parts of the body are used. Some easy physical exercises are adopted to fulfill the needs of the particular ailments. Loosen the joints, stretch and relax the muscles, improve the forbearance power, to develop stamina. Yogasanas: YogÃâÃ sanas are physical postures often imitating the natural position of animal meant to tranquil the mind. Through postures the physical revitalization, deep relaxation and mental calmness are brought about. Pranamaya kosha: The sheath of prana is a process for gaining control over prana. Awareness and concentration on the painful parts give a control over the affected prana. Sectional breat
Sunday, October 13, 2019
SCM-Variation Gravity-Centrifugal-Power-Motor Objectives At chapter Swing-Circuit-Motor (SCM) above, a design was worked out corresponding to build-up of a loop-swing. There, two axis were demanded (system- and excenter-axis) and two Ã ´wheelsÃ ´ did turn within each other. So this will be a rather difficult technical construction. By this chapter now shall be examined, how effect of building-up mechancal oscillations could be realized easier. So only one axis should be neccessary, nevertheless masses should move like at uneven Ã ´movement of pendulumÃ ´, above this phase shifting by intermediate storage of forces must be guaranteed. Pendulum with radial suspension At previous chapter Mechanical Oscillating Circuit Harald Chmela did mention example of a pendulum with radially working spring, like schematically shown once more at picture EV SKM 31 upside. Around system axis (SA) a pendulum, here called rotor arm (RT, German RotortrÃ ¤ger), can swing. At the rotor arm effective mass (MP) can glide inside and outside. That radial movements are limited resp. controlled by a spring element (FE, German Federelement). Potential energy of level is transformed into kinetic energy at downward-phase, opposite energy of movement is re-transformed into energy of high level at upward-phase. In addition, power is stored into spring intermediately, so some later power is restored into pendulums oscillation. Mass will move at an U-shaped track. Mass will show maximum speed at its lowest point of track (A) and there will press down spring at its maximum. Following relaxation of spring will show analog relations of forces, based at symmetry, so this mechanical oscillation will be stable (no friction assumed). Effect of building-up oscillations can only be achieved, if symmetry is broken. This could be done e.g. as shown at picture EV SKM 31 downside. Asymmetric track Tension of spring downside should have to be stored for a short time, e.g. any mechanicsm could allow relaxation of spring some later (B). Counter stored energy then would exist less forces (resulting force of gravity power and centrifugal power), showing upward more and more. Power of spring afterward could move mass easier and faster towards upward-inside (C). Angles speed thus will be accelerated and mass will be brought to higher level (D) than starting level. This mechanical oscillating circuit thus will be build-up without input of energy from outside. Progressive suspension By this concept an asymmetric track is achieved. However, this pendulum swinging resp. effect of build-up oscillations is technically usable only if a momentum is achieved at a constant turning shaft.
Saturday, October 12, 2019
Alcohol is the main beverage for parties and special occasions in the United States. Many people decide to drink alcohol because it helps them relax, ease tension and socializing. Even most non-drinkers are forced to drink alcohol because of peer pressure. Hebert Moskowitz, the president of the Southern California Research Institute in Los Angeles, concedes that Ã¢â¬Å"alcohol has been so popular these days; it seems as though alcohol is a requirement for partiesÃ¢â¬ (Moskowitz, 13). Unfortunately, most UNM students do not know their limits for alcohol consumption. By the time a party is over, they fail to realize that they had one too many drinks and they decide to drink and drive. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety and Administration (NHTSA), in 2009 there were approximately 10,839 reported student drunk driving fatalities. Even though the number of alcohol-related crashes decreases every year, driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol should not be underestimat ed. Approximately every twenty-two minutes, one in every fifty American drunk drivers crashes due to alcohol (NHTSA, 2009). Many UNM students under the influence of alcohol do not understand the consequences as they get into their car. It is our duty as students to take action against student drunk drivers, in order to make our campus and roads safer. The solution is simple. As students, we need to be re-educate UNM students about DUI and petition to ask the Government of New Mexico for harsher penalties against drunk drivers. There have been many awareness campaigns, such as the current, Ã¢â¬Å"You Drink, You Drive, You Lose Campaign.Ã¢â¬ Many campaigns have tried to let UNM students understand the dangers of drinking while driving. However, many students still conti... ...ws, Sports, Entertainment, Jobs, Classifieds And Advertising. 21 Feb. 2011. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. . Moskowitz, Hebert, and Marcelline Burns. "Effects of Alcohol on Driving Performance." Alcohol Health & Research World 17.4 (1993): 12-15. NHTSA. "Traffic Safety Facts 2009." National Center for Statistics and Analysis: 13-143. Web. 8 Apr. 2011. . Pacheco, Angela. "Transportation Safety Law Center." Transportation Safety Law Center Home Page. Web. 08 Apr. 2011. . Sen, Anindya. "WILL STRICTER PENALTIES DETER DRUNK DRIVING?" Policy Options (1999): 54-60. Print. Think Quest. "1.4 Underage Drinking - ThinkQuest." Oracle Think Quest Education Foundation. Web. 8 Apr. 2011.
Friday, October 11, 2019
Melisa Chan English Language and Literature Instructor Van Andel Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- February 1, 2013 Viewing Africa From Two Sides Of A Coin. There arenÃ¢â¬â¢t many novels about the true face of Africa on bookshelves, especially not novels written by an author who knows Africa best during the time of its pre-colonial period. Things Fall Apart is a novel worth reading because itÃ¢â¬â¢s eye opener for those with not-very-positive stereotypes of the continent. In fact, it has been said that Things Fall Apart was written as a response to another novel, The Heart of Darkness.This is because in the latter novel, Africa was viewed in a darker light compared to the former novel. Thus, itÃ¢â¬â¢s natural that there will be differences and similarities between the two novels. However, assuming that Things Fall Apart being written as a response to The Heart of Darkness is a fact; there will be more differences than similarities among the two novels, especially in terms of its author, point of view, and the perception of the novel towards Africa and how the Africans treated in the novels. One of the aspects in which the two novels have more differences than similarities is the author.In terms of the author, The Heart of Darkness was written by Joseph Conrad, a non-African. He wrote the novel in Europe in 1902. This was during the Victorian Era under the rule of Queen Victoria. Apparently, in Europe, the African continent was viewed as a dark continent. This is perhaps due to the fact that it was compared to Europe itself where everything is civilized and familiar to them whereas Africa was a place of mystery and the unknown. On the other hand, Things Fall Apart was written by Chinua Achebe, an African who wrote this novel much later than Joseph Conrad, which was back in 1958.This novel was written in Africa but published in England, unlike The Heart of Darkne ss which was written and published in the same continent. In addition, it was written during the pre-colonial period before they gained independence. Unlike Joseph Conrad who was a foreigner to Africa, Chinua Achebe knew his country as well as he knew himself, thus, he gave Africa and its people more life and made their personalities and culture equally as significant and vibrant as those around the world. Furthermore, there werenÃ¢â¬â¢t any use of comparison of the continent to other continents.The comparisons used in Things Fall Apart were normal comparisons between individuals and local villages. Another aspect in which we can compare and contrast the two novels is the point of view in which they were written. The Heart of Darkness was written in the first-person point of view, through MarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. A rather unique style of writing that Conrad used for The Heart of Darkness was that the novel was written as a double story with a first-person narration within a first-per son narration.The frame-narrator is used to describe MarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s narration of his own story while the other first-person narrator is Marlow himself, depicting his adventure in the Congo. Unlike a typical first-person style, MarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s first-person narration is directed not towards the reader but to the men on the boat on the Thames. The frame-narrator on the other hand is narrating for the reader, the outer audience. It seemed like Conrad was reading aloud MarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s travel log. Things Fall Apart on the other hand was written in the third-person point of view.Instead of writing through the eyes of an African, the story of Things Fall Apart was written through the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, as if heÃ¢â¬â¢s writing his observations of Okonkwo and the Igbo people. Things Fall Apart was written just like a typical story book which contained small interrelated stories, especially in the first part of the book. It was written in a way that depicted a progressive day-to-day basi s of the people of OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s family and his village. Besides that, the perception and treatment of Africa and its inhabitants are very different between the two novels.In The Heart of Darkness, the Africans were depicted as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"savageÃ¢â¬ AfricansÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"excerptÃ¢â¬ : motifs and themes). They were treated like animals and slaves. In fact, the African slaves were described as soulless, as if they were empty shells used to work for the Europeans, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ They passed me within six inches, without a glance, with that complete deathlike indifference of unhappy savages. Ã¢â¬ Even the Congo River was depicted as winding, dark and treacherous, compared to the Thames River which was depicted as a place of light, clear and unclouded.In Things Fall Apart, however, Africa and its people were depicted as full of vigor and life. The people of Umuofia were hardworking people who worked on their farms with passion and purpose. They also have a sense of pride and honor. For example, the people of Umuofia will only attack another village only if it was by the order of the Oracle or they will be punished. This can be proven by an extract from the novel: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦never went to war unless its case was clear and just and was accepted as such by its OracleÃ¢â¬ ¦the Oracle had forbidden Umuofia to wage a war.If the clan had disobeyed the Oracle, they would have been beatenÃ¢â¬ ¦never fightÃ¢â¬ ¦a fight of blameÃ¢â¬ (12). Even the environment seemed to be alive. There were changes in weather, farming and harvesting seasons and even the season where the locusts came. When comparing and contrasting these two novels, a few similarities can be identified. First of all, they are similar in the way that they were written about Africa in the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s respective perspectives. They neither relied on external sources nor let them influence their writing style and context of their writing.Another similarity is that they both showed effect s of the colonization of the Europeans on the local community though they were introduced at different times in each novel. Colonization effects include loss of the African culture and principles and also a change in lifestyle of the local community. The hierarchy of the local community was also disturbed. In both novels, Africans who were supposed to be highly regarded were degraded to mere followers or slaves. The similarities identified are somewhat superficial similarities because despite having similar aspects, at a closer look, these similarities also express differences.In conclusion, there are more differences than similarities between these two novels. This is perhaps as expected because these two novels were written by two different people of different nationalities, backgrounds and perspectives. Furthermore, they were written in two different time periods. We cannot and should not judge which of these two novels is better. We should see these two novels as equals in terms of information sources because by reading, understanding and comparing these two novels, we get a better understanding of Africa from both sides of a coin.Thus, our perspective and knowledge of Africa is now broader and based on this, we can see Africa in a different light. Whether we see it in a better or worse light is entirely up to us to decide. However, at the very least, we have established the arguments about Africa to aid our judgment. Works Cited Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 2010. Excerpt from Joseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s The Heart of Darkness. Date of access: 31 January 2013. Comparing and Contrasting the Novel, Heart of Darkness. Ã¢â¬ 123HelpMe. com. 23 Feb 2013 . Ã¢â¬Å"Ibo Religion in Things Fall ApartÃ¢â¬ . Religion-Culture-and-Stories. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3. 0 License. Date of access: 30 January 2013. Ã¢â¬Å"The Art of Narration in Heart of DarknessÃ¢â¬ . Introduction to Heart of Darkness. D ate of access: 23 February 2013. < http://home. roadrunner. com/~jhartzog/heartofdarknessintro. html>
Thursday, October 10, 2019
Introduction Between the years 2009 and 2008 there were multiple financial changes to the Patton Ã¢â¬â Fuller Community Hospital. Using a combination of the balance sheet, statement of revenue and expenses, and also the 2009 hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s annual report we are able to see how the years differ in a financial situation. This paper will explain the differences in the finances that had the largest impact on the company as a whole. Balance Sheet The assets of the company played a large role in the large jump of the numbers between 2009 and 2008. Between the two years there was a total change of 7. 5 percent of the total asset which equaled $39,232 dollars. The largest change came from a 56. 10 percent increase in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s accounts receivables, a change of $21,121 dollars. Cash and cash flow equivalents equaled a 45. 10 percent decrease, a change of $18,856 dollars. The inventories offered a 19 percent increase, a change of $10,026 dollars (Apollo Group, 2013). According to the annual report, there was a 1 million dollar donation that provided the hospital with an opportunity to buy new equipment and supplies (Apollo Group, 2013). The liabilities of the company also proved to have multiple changes over time.Due to the purchase of the new equipment there has been a large increase of the debt accrued by the company according to the annual report. Borrowing became necessary to cover all the necessary equipment. The report also stated that an increase of supply purchases would save money in the long run due to the discounted cost at the time of the purchase (Apollo Group, 2013). The current long term debt increased 114. 80 percent a change of $10,414 dollars. The accrued expenses also rose 119. 80 percent a change of $5,013 dollars, leaving a total liability increase of 16. percent companywide leaving a change of $248,703 dollars. (Apollo Group, 2013). The total equity of the company fell between 2009 and 2008. The hospital did not do so well, although most of the shortfall can be attributed to the increase of assets they accrued over the change of 2009 to 2008. The retained earnings between the two years fell 62. 50 percent a loss of $209,471 dollars. This pushed the total liabilities and equity up by 71. 50 percent providing a difference of $39,232 dollars. 2008 proved to be a better year for the company then 2009 (Apollo Group, 2013).Statement of Revenue and Expenses The Patton Ã¢â¬â Fuller Community Hospital ended the year of 2009 with a new income of a negative $373 dollars. This is actually an increase of revenue from the loss of $15,846 dollars they finished with in 2008. The percentage of change between the two years increased to 97. 60 percent. The total expenses between the two years can attribute to the large changes that were made with the net income. In 2009 the company had a total expense of $463,293 dollars, an increase of spending by 59. 20 percent from 2008 when the total expenses were $437,424 (Apollo Group, 2 013).Between 2009 and 2008 there were slight increases of the revenues by the company. In influx of patients were seen in 2009 leaving a 9. 90 percent change of $41,391 dollars between the two years. Other revenues also provide a 9. 87 percent change leading to a $277 increase for 2009. The total revenues equaled $41,668 more dollars for the company in 2009. With a 9. 89 percent increase of revenue 2009 made $462,982 dollars compared to the $421,314 dollars made in 2008 (Apollo Group, 2013). 2009 provided an increase of the fixed assets; in result of this we saw an increase by 44 percent for the depreciation and amortization of the company.The total operating income fell 98. 10 percent in 2009. Although the company was negative $311 dollars, it was still a better place to be then the $16,110 dollars from 2008. The company had a non-operating income loss of $62 dollars which was a 76. 50 percent change from 2008 of $264 dollars (Apollo Group, 2013). Conclusion When a company is provi ded with a large donation it can do great things for what the facilities are able to provide to their patients. With the increase of new equipment and supplies the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s need to finance has become apparent by their financial records.Although it is good to have new amenities for the patients, running a company on credit is not always what is best. There is a large need for the Patton Ã¢â¬â Fuller Community Hospital to watch spending and decrease their financial debts. References Apollo Group, Inc. (2013). Patton Ã¢â¬â Fuller Community Hospital. Annual Report 2009. Apollo Group, Inc. (2013). Patton Ã¢â¬â Fuller Community Hospital. Balance sheet as of December 31, 2009 and 2008. Apollo Group, Inc. (2013). Patton Ã¢â¬â Fuller Community Hospital. Statement of Revenue and Expense 2009 and 2008. Financial Data Analysis Financial Data Analysis Daphnnee Johnson HCS 577 March 18, 2013 Sharon Gomes-Sanders Financial Data Analysis After reviewing the balance sheet for Patton-Fuller Hospital for 2008 and 2009, there are significant differences that are noticeable. The retained earnings (or Ã¢â¬Å"Net WorthÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Unrestricted Fund BalanceÃ¢â¬ ) drastically decreased from 2008 to 2009 (Apollo Group, 2006). The dollar amount decrease is -209,471, this makes a decrease of over 65%. Long-term debt increase to more than 116% from 2008 to 2009 as well (Apollo Group, 2006). This is a massively huge increase.Total current liabilities also increase as a whole by 184. 09% (Apollo Group, 2006). Major differences are also noted on the statement of revenue and expenses. The operating income decreased by 98% from 2008 to 2009 (Apollo Group, 2006). Net income also decreased between these years by the same percentage. Non-operating income decreased by 77% as well. The total revenue and expenses all seem with in normal range, but the operating income, non-operating income, and net income all have decreased and drastically (Apollo Group, 2006). The total revenue increased by 10% that is $41,668. The expenses increased by $25,869 or 5. 1%. These all seem like reasonable slight increases (Apollo Group, 2006). Many factors can contribute to why there are so many fluctuations and changes between 2008 and 2009. This information usually can be found in the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s annual report. Upon reviewing the Patton-Fuller Community HospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s annual report, I could deduct some possible explanations for the drastic change in numbers from 2008 to 2009 (Apollo Group, 2006). One possible explanations is, Ã¢â¬Å"Utilities and other costs Ã¢â¬â contracted maintenance, some professional fees, and computer and other usage fees Ã¢â¬â do not fluctuateÃ¢â¬ (Apollo Group, 2006, p. ). This would be an accurate reason the revenue seems so different. Another factor that made Patton-Fuller C ommunity HospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s numbers change so drastically between the two years is the passing of the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s benefactor, Abigail Baderman (Apollo Group, 2006). This occurred in 2008, but in 2009 in accordance to her will, the hospital received a money donation from her estate. This $1,000,000 donation is noted as an unrestricted donation (Apollo Group, 2006). This unrestricted donation is recorded on the Interim Statement of Income in December 2009 (Apollo Group, 2006). Declines in the stock market and real estate markets resulted in a sharp drop in the return on investment income. This caused PFCH to reassess the value of its investments and, on their auditorsÃ¢â¬â¢ advice, to write down those assets (Apollo Group, 2006, p. 3). Another reason the number were so drastically different was because every December Patton-Fuller Community Hospital conducts an annual inventory (Apollo Group, 2006). When the hospital conducted its inventory their expenses for their supplies wer e way underestimated by about a million dollars (Apollo Group, 2006).So this had to be added on as a cost to DecemberÃ¢â¬â¢s statement. This underestimate of supply expenses made January to NovemberÃ¢â¬â¢s reports not correct, so December had to report the actual figures (Apollo Group, 2006). Therefore, December looked like it was a crazy month for the hospital. Ã¢â¬Å"Following the favorable settlement of some managed care contract disputes, net patient revenue increased by 9% over the previous year, with an average 6% increase in expenses. However, the new arrangement allowed slower payment by the managed care companies, and Patient Accounts Receivable have risen sharplyÃ¢â¬ (Apollo Group, 2006, p. ). The Board at Patton-Fuller wanted to take advantage of a heavy discount on new equipment so they moved some money around to purchase the discounted equipment (Apollo Group, 2006). This was possible by using cash and releasing restricted assets, and borrowing as necessary (Apol lo Group, 2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Declines in the stock market and real estate markets resulted in a sharp drop in the return on investment income. This caused PFCH to reassess the value of its investments and, on their auditorsÃ¢â¬â¢ advice, to write down those assets (Apollo Group, 2006, p. 3). In conclusion, there were some drastic difference between the ears 2008 and 2009 on both the statement of revenue and expenses as well as the balance sheet. However, all of these significant changes, whether they are positive or negative changes can all be accounted for by various factors. Some of the factors included a generous donation of a million dollars, favorable settlements of managed care contract disputes, investments in new, discounted equipment, and the underestimation of the supply expenses. References Apollo Group. (2006). Patton-Fuller Community Hospital [Multimedia]. Retrieved from Apollo Group, HCS577 Ã¢â¬â Financial Management in Health Care website.
Wednesday, October 9, 2019
Film Reviews - Research Paper Example The documentary is also punctuated by various statistics that detail Americans diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in the epidemicÃ¢â¬â¢s earlier years. The documentary relates and narrates the lives of Dr. Tom Waddell, who founded Gay Games, a young hemophiliac David Mandell, Robert Perryman who got AIDS by injecting drugs, Jeffrey Sevcik who was gay, and David Campbell who was a veteran in the US Navy. As well as their personal stories, the film documents the delayed response to AIDS by the Reagan administration using archival footage of government officials (Common Threads: Stories from the Quilt), reactions by medical practitioners, and the initial attempts by gay men to use the AIDS issue to organize the community. The documentary clearly brings into focus the AIDS era, although it does not break any new ground that has not already been covered. However, what makes this film important is that it creates and documents a historical era during which hysteria on AIDS and its relation to the g ay community was starting to turn to compassion for those who were infected. It seems to tell that this only occurred at the end of the Reagan administration, which, from the film, considered the disease to be a moral issue and not a public healthcare issue. The film narrates how AIDS broke barriers between middle class families of heterosexual leaning and the gay community in finding a common ground. One touching moment was when the Mandell family asserted they were middle-class Americans who, when it came to AIDS, found out that there was no Middle America as everyone who was affected clung to one another. Every story in this documentary is well narrated by those who survived the victims and who are on the quilt. The film draws sympathy as Sally Perryman talks about Robert, her husband, and the way he struggled to end his drug addiction until he died of AIDS. There is heartbreak when the Mandell family takes the viewer through the pictures and videos of their son, as he became sic ker, while their struggle with prejudice from their community shows how stigmatizing the disease still was in the 80s. The film also discusses the life of Vito Russo, who originally wrote The Celluloid Closet prior to his death from AIDS in his prime. However, the story, which is most revealing is Tracy TorreyÃ¢â¬â¢s, whose partner David Campbell died, as he also is. He is shown on his bed dying with lesions and unable to rise from his bed. This film is a chilling look into how AIDS affected the entire country without discrimination. Silverlake Life: The View from Here (1993) This film documents the experiences that TOM Joslin, a film professor at UCLA, and his partner Mark Massi after TomÃ¢â¬â¢s AIDS diagnosis (Silverlake Life: The View from Here). The film traces his struggles as he tries to cope with an AIDS diagnosis, especially their trip to New Hampshire for a Christmas celebration that Joslin believes is the last with his family, which has refused to accept his partner fo r the last 22 years. As the documentary progresses, the filmmaker makes it clear that the love between the two partners is what has made the disease bearable for Joslin. The filming continues after TomÃ¢â¬â¢s demise, showing the manner in which the undertakers and other people handle his body through the filming work of Peter Friedman, his friend, who chronicles MassiÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance by the family following JoslinÃ¢â¬â¢s demise. This documentary does not have overt political statements and acts only as a record of the experiences of two lovers as one of them dies from an incurable disease. The first-person diary style used to shoot the film enables the viewer to see the intensity of